Dimethyl sulfoxide is a colorless liquid, and it is a compound containing sulfur (CH3)2SO. DMSO is a compound, without hydrogen attached to oxygen or nitrogen. As the skin easily absorbs it, so it has many clinical applications. It is a compound with a high boiling point (189-degree centigrade) and soluble in an organic solvent (ether, benzene, chloroform, etc.) and water. DMSO has many benefits: ex- DMSO helps relieve pain, muscular and skeletal injuries, etc. It also examined that it is useful in cancer treatment, affecting rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and anti-inflammatory response.
Properties of DMSO:
It has a relatively low melting point that is 19 degrees centigrade and density approximately 1.1 gram per cubic centimeter. It also has an amphipathic nature that can dissolve both polar and non-polar solvents.
It has a molecular mass of 78.13 grams per mole. The other names for DMSO are ex- Methylsulfinylmethane and Methyl sulfoxide.
It has a molecular shape of trigonal pyramidal and having dipole moment 3.96D. It can have the phase behavior of solid, liquid, and gas as well.
We can design DMSO’s structure by Ultra Violet Spectroscopy, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Mass Spectrometry, Infra-Red Spectroscopy, etc.
After DMSO contact with the skin, it will create a sense of garlic taste in the mouth.
Synthesis and Production:
It is primarily produced by dimethyl sulfide, which is itself a by-product of the Kraft process. It is also industrially produced from dimethyl sulfide. DMSO produced by metabolic processes in sediments and soils. It can also found in natural water. By the metabolism process in soil, microorganisms are produced.
That microorganism can do the formations of dimethyl sulfide. In industries also, the formation process has been carried out. DMSO is used in various industries because it can be used in the manufacturing process of a variety of polymers. Those polymers are used in various kinds of DMSO products.
Applications of DMSO:
In cell culture:
It is used in cell culture as a cryoprotectant. Cryopreservation is a process where the plant cells, organelles, tissues, protoplasts are stored for a long period by using liquid nitrogen at -196 degrees centigrade or solid carbon dioxide at -80 degrees centigrade or vapor nitrogen at -150 degree centigrade. A cryoprotectant is a chemical substance that protects the cell from the damaging effect of cold storage.
Normally it is added before the freezing treatment as it prevents the intracellular or extracellular ice crystal formation. It is added in three or four installments, and it helps in retaining the original relationship of the cells. It acts as an anti-freezing agent as the cells remain safe at -196 degrees centigrade.
As a solvent:
As it is polar, it dissolves the substance that is poorly soluble. Due to its polarity, it acts as a good solvent.
It is used in a polymerase chain reaction to prevent the formation of secondary structures of the DNA template and the DNA primers. In cell culture, it helps in the differentiation of P19 embryonic carcinoma into skeletal muscle cells. DMSO enhances the absorption of flavonol glycoside icariin into C.elegans.
DMSO used as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant agent. It is also used in the treatment of burns, wounds, healing of injuries, etc. It can also be used for eye problems, headaches, and scleroderma (disease for which skin formation prevents). But there are no studies where there is mentioned about its proper dose. DMSO also used to make some medicines more powerful ex- sedatives, steroids, blood thinners. But diabetes, asthmatic, and liver & kidney related patients need to consult their doctors before using DMSO medicines.
It is well known for the treatment of horses. It is given to horses intravenously, alone, or with the combinations of other ingredients. It is also used to treat high intracranial pressure and cerebral edema in horses.
It is a non-toxic agent. Though it is used to relieve many pains and also used for the treatments of several diseases, you need to ask your respective physicians before consuming any products related to DMSO. Still, many countries are working on it to provide evidence in clinical diagnostics. We can say that the research works are still in process.