What is Quantitative Research? And Its 5 Types

In the present times, human lives are dominated by numbers. Decisions are made based on numbers, and this numerical data needs to be interpreted with precision. Quantitative research aims to collect numerical data via standardized methods. It then applies statistical techniques to extract insights from it.

Quantitative research is a systematic analysis of phenomena. This is done by collecting quantifiable data. The data that is gathered is methodically analyzed using statistical, mathematical, or computational techniques. Quantitative research is carried out by various methods such as online surveys, questionnaires, or sampling. The outcome of the research analysis is then represented in quantifiable data. With this data, the future of a product or service is predicted, and the loopholes are fixed accordingly.

Behavioral science is the methodical study of human behavior. Within the social and behavioral sciences, quantitative research methods are used extensively to formulate hypotheses and to verify them deductively. The best quantitative research in behavioral sciences is performed by measuring the events succinctly. The numerical data is statistically analyzed, and from this analysis, comparisons and generalizations are made. 

When Is Quantitative Research Useful?

Quantitative research is used in the quantification of attitudes, opinions, behaviors, and other defined variables. This method involves a survey of a large group of people. With a structured questionnaire that is based on predominantly closed-ended or forced-choice questions, the selected group of people is surveyed. The numerical data that is generated from this analysis is used by companies to make statistics. On the basis of this data, the company can make the required plans and predictions.

How to Plan A Quantitative Research Exercise?

Identify The Research Problem.

To initiate quantitative research, you need to identify the area in which you want to carry out the research. After you finalize the area, narrow down your focus on a particular aspect of the larger group on which you want to essentially carry out the research.

Prepare The Research Questions.

As you finalize your research area and the associated problems, figure out specific research problems that you want to address. 

Review Existing Literature 

Carrying out research that has been thoroughly dealt with in the past will make your research redundant. To ensure that you bring something new to the table, review the existing literature. Check out the loopholes and gaps in the previous research papers. Use their research data to make new deductions.

Develop A Research Plan

This is an important aspect of your research project. Finalize a research plan to identify the target group, sample, and techniques of data collection; conduct the data analysis; collate the recommendations. The entire process will help you to collectively arrive at the results.

Types of Quantitative Research

Survey Research

For all the quantitative research techniques, survey research is an important elementary tool. It aims to explain the characteristics of the targeted group of people. Both the small scale and large scale industries can employ the survey research techniques to understand customer behavior. Companies can analyze the queries raised by the customers regarding a particular product or service. Survey quantitative research analysis can be either cross-sectional or longitudinal. The cross-sectional survey is carried out on a particular population at a specified purpose of time. A longitudinal survey is conducted at various time durations. 

Descriptive Research

The descriptive quantitative research analysis is used to explain and interpret the present status of an identified variable, such as the status of people of a particular demographic, settings, conditions, or events. The systematic collection of data needs a careful selection of the units and measurements for each variable.

Experimental Research

The experimental quantitative research analysis method, as the name suggests, is based on the experimentation of one or many theories. A cause-effect relationship is established among the group of variables to make a deductive study. It consists of many components, namely, a group of participants for experimentation, an independent variable also referred to as an experimental variable, and a dependent variable according to which the participants are measured identically.

Correlational Research

It is used for establishing a relationship among two close entities. With the help of this study, it is observed how one entity impacts the other. The correlational research method helps to identify the data trends. No variables are manipulated in this research method, and it is not based on the cause-effect relationship.

Casual-Comparative Research

The cause-effect relationship is established between two or more variables in the casual-comparative research method. One of the variables in this method will depend on the opposite experimental variable. This method works on a comparison basis.

To Conclude:

The quantitative research analysis method is targeted specifically at numerical data. It is based on a scientific approach, and the various types of quantitative research methods aim to systematically collect the data and objectively evaluate it. The data trends are then used to explain the present pattern and to anticipate future events